Robert Smalls was a Civil War hero and Reconstruction congress man.
Booker Taliaferro Washington born a slave in Hale's Ford, Virginia.
Colin Luther Powell was born on this day.
FBI documents, released in response to a freedom of information suit, revealed that the government mounted an intensive campaign against civil rights organizations in the sixties.
In a letter dated August 25, 1967, the FBI said the government operation, called COINTELPRO, was designed "to expose, disrupt, misdirect, discredit or otherwise neutralize the activities of Black nationalists, hate-type groups, their leadership, spokesmen, membership and supporters, and to counter their propensity for violence and civil disorders."
A later telegram specifically named the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference as organizations having "radical and violence prone leaders, members and followers."
Gertrude Downing invented the corner cleaner attachment.
Jazz vocalist Sarah Vaughn dies